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by

美 [baɪ]
英 [baɪ]
  • prep.按照;经过;依;靠近
  • adv.经过;表示保留或保存时用;短暂拜访
  • n.〈美〉同“bye. by and again”
  • 网络乘;被;由
By
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prep.
1.
靠近;在…旁边near sb/sth; at the side of sb/sth; beside sb/sth
a house by the river
河边的一所房子
The telephone is by the window.
电话在窗户旁边。
Come and sit by me.
过来挨着我坐。
2.
(常置于表示被动的动词后,表示施事者)used, usually after a passive verb, to show who or what does, creates or causes sth
He was knocked down by a bus.
他被公共汽车撞倒了。
a play by Ibsen
易卜生写的剧本
Who's that book by?
谁是那本书的作者?
I was frightened by the noise.
我被那响声吓坏了。
3.
(表示方式)used for showing how or in what way sth is done
The house is heated by gas.
这房子是煤气供暖的。
May I pay by cheque?
我能用支票付款吗?
I will contact you by letter.
我会给你写信联系的。
to travel by boat/bus/car/plane
乘船╱公共汽车╱轿车╱飞机
to travel by air/land/sea
坐飞机;经陆路╱海路
Switch it on by pressing this button.
按下这个开关启动它。
4.
(置于不带 the 的名词前,表示原因)由于used before particular nouns withoutthe , to say that sth happens as a result of sth
They met by chance.
他们不期而遇。
I did it by mistake.
我误做了这事。
The coroner's verdict was ‘death by misadventure’.
验尸官判定是“意外致死”。
5.
不迟于;在…之前not later than the time mentioned; before
Can you finish the work by five o'clock?
你五点钟前能完成工作吗?
I'll have it done by tomorrow.
我明天之前让人把它弄好。
By this time next week we'll be in New York.
下星期的这个时候我们将在纽约。
He ought to have arrived by now/by this time .
他现在应该已经到了。
By the time (that) this letter reaches you I will have left the country.
你收到这封信时,我已离开这个国家了。
6.
经过past sb/sth
He walked by me without speaking.
他一言不发地从我身边走过。
7.
在…期间;处于某种状况during sth; in a particular situation
to travel by day/night
白天╱夜间旅行
We had to work by candlelight.
我们不得不借助烛光工作。
8.
(表示程度、数量)used to show the degree or amount of sth
The bullet missed him by two inches.
子弹只差两英寸就击中他了。
House prices went up by 10%.
房价上涨了 10%。
It would be better by far(= much better) to…
那比…好得多。
9.
从…看;依;按照from what sth shows or says; according to sth
By my watch it is two o'clock.
我的表是两点钟。
I could tell by the look on her face that something terrible had happened.
从她的脸色我可以看出,发生了可怕的事情。
By law, you are a child until you are 18.
按照法律规定,18 岁之前是未成年人。
10.
(表示触及或抓住的人或物的部分)used to show the part of sb/sth that sb touches, holds, etc.
I took him by the hand.
我拉着他的手。
She seized her by the hair.
她揪住她的头发。
Pick it up by the handle!
抓着手柄把它提起来!
11.
(与 the 连用,表示时间或量度单位)used withthe to show the period or quantity used for buying, selling or measuring sth
We rented the car by the day.
我们按日租用汽车。
They're paid by the hour.
他们的报酬是按小时计算的。
We only sell it by the metre.
我们只按米出售。
12.
(表示速率)used to state the rate at which sth happens
They're improving day by day.
他们在一天天地改进。
We'll do it bit by bit.
我们会一点一点地做。
It was getting worse by the minute(= very fast) .
情况急速恶化。
The children came in two by two(= in groups of two) .
孩子们一对一对地走了进来。
13.
(表示尺寸时用)used to show the measurements of sth
The room measures fifteen feet by twenty feet.
房间 15 英尺宽 20 英尺长。
14.
(用于乘除运算)used when multiplying or dividing
6 multiplied by 2 equals 12.
6 乘以 2 等于 12。
6 divided by 2 equals 3.
6 除以 2 等于 3。
15.
(补充有关出生地、职业等的信息)used for giving more information about where sb comes from, what sb does, etc.
He's German by birth.
他是德国血统的。
They're both doctors by profession.
他们两人的职业都是医生。
16.
(起誓时用)以…的名义used when swearing to mean ‘in the name of’
I swear by Almighty God…
我以全能上帝之名发誓…
IDM
by the by/bye
adv.
1.
经过past
Just drive by. Don't stop.
直接开过去。别停车。
He hurried by without speaking to me.
他没和我说话就匆匆过去了。
Excuse me, I can't get by.
劳驾,请让开点路。
Time goes by so quickly.
时光飞逝。
2.
(表示保留或保存时用)used to say that sth is saved so that it can be used in the future
I've put some money by for college fees.
我已经存了些钱作大学学费。
3.
短暂拜访in order to visit sb for a short time
I'll come by this evening and pick up the books.
我今晚过来取书。
IDM
By and by she met an old man with a beard.
她不久就碰到了一个大胡子老头。
by and by
不久;很快before long; soon
By and by she met an old man with a beard.
她不久就碰到了一个大胡子老头。

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